What Were the Laws of Hammurabi

The laws of Hammurabi reflect the shock of an unprecedented social environment: the multi-ethnic and tribal Babylonian world. In earlier Sumerian-Akkadian times, all communities felt common members of the same family, all equally servants under the eyes of the gods. In such circumstances, disputes can be resolved through a collectively accepted value system in which blood is thicker than water and just reparation is more desirable than revenge. Now that city dwellers usually encountered nomads who followed a completely different way of life, being thrown together as speakers of several Western Semitic Amurru languages as well as others with unsympathetic Akkadians, the confrontation must have too easily turned into conflict. Quarrels and bloody quarrels often had to threaten the cohesion of the empire. (180) Hammurabi combined his military and political advances with irrigation projects and the construction of fortifications and temples celebrating the patron deity of Babylon, Marduk. Hammurabi`s time Babylon is now buried beneath the region`s water table, and all the records he kept have long since been dissolved, but clay tablets discovered at other ancient sites give a glimpse into the king`s personality and statesman. Black codes were restrictive laws designed to restrict the freedom of African Americans and ensure their availability as cheap labor after slavery was abolished during the Civil War. Although the Union victory gave freedom to about 4 million slaves, the Union won the freedom of the Slave Victory in the Army.

Law 238 states that a ship master, ship manager or charterer who saves a ship from total loss only has to pay half of the value of the ship to the shipowner. [175] [176] [177] In the Digesta seu Pandectae (533), the second volume of the codification of laws ordered by Justinian I (527-565) of the Eastern Roman Empire, a legal opinion of the Roman jurist Paul at the beginning of the crisis of the third century in 235 AD on the Lex Rhodia („Rhodian law“) has been included, which articulates the general principle of the average of maritime insurance. that of the island of Rhodes around 1000 to 800 BC. AD as a member of the Doric hexapolis, plausible by the Phoenicians during the planned Doric invasion and emergence of the so-called Sea Peoples in the Greek Middle Ages (c. 1100 – c. 750), which led to the spread of the Doric-Greek dialect. [178] [179] [180] The law of the general average is the basic principle underlying all insurance. [179] Wolfram von Soden, who decades earlier called this way of thinking enumerating science,[119] often denigrated it. [120] However, recent authors such as Marc Van De Mieroop, Jean Bottero and Ann Guinan have either avoided value judgments or expressed admiration.

Lists were at the heart of Mesopotamian science and logic, and their strong structural principles made it possible to generate endless entries. [118] The connection between the codex and the writing tradition in which the „science of lists“ was born also explains why aspiring writers have copied and studied it for more than a millennium. [24] The codex appears at the end of the Babylonian (7th-6th century BC). List of literary and scientific texts. [121] No other body of law has been so firmly anchored in the curriculum. [122] Instead of a legal code, it can therefore be a scientific treatise. [100] Laws are expressed in casuistic form: they are conditional judgments, with the case described in the protasis clause („if“) and the remedy in the apodosis clause („then“). Protasis begins šumma „if“,[138] unless it adds circumstances already provided for in a previous law (e.g. Laws 36, 38 and 40).

[139] The past tense is used for simple past verbs in protasis or possibly for a simple conditional. [138] The perfect often appears at the end of protasis after one or more times spent transmitting a sequence of actions or possibly a hypothetical condition. [138] The durative, in which Assyriology is sometimes called the „present,“ can express intention in laws. [138] To facilitate reading in English, some translations give present meaning to past tense and perfect verbs in protasis. [140] In apodose, verbs are durative, although the meaning varies between permissive – „x is allowed to happen“ – and instructive – „x must/will occur“. [141] In protasis and apodose, the sequence of actions is mediated by the suffix of verbs with -ma, „and“. [142] -ma can also have the meaning „but“. [143] The above principles are, in spirit, far removed from modern systems of general and civil law, but some may be more familiar. One of these principles is the presumption of innocence; The first two laws of the stele prescribe penalties set by the Lex Talionis for unfounded accusations.

Written evidence was highly valued, particularly in contractual matters,[131] [42] A crime was punished only once. [132] The statutes also recognized the importance of the accused`s intentions. [123] Finally, the establishment of the Code of Public Stelae was intended to improve access to justice. Whether this is true or not, suggesting that the stele be read to an unjust man (lines 3240`–3254`)[note 1] is a concrete step in this direction, given the inaccessibility of scribe training in Babylonian times. [133] The Code of Hammurabi was introduced throughout the country and united the people under the law and not just through conquest. Unlike the Akkadian Empire, which found it necessary to place handpicked officials to administer their conquered cities, Hammurabi controlled his empire by law. In the prologue to his code, not only does he make it clear that these are divine laws, but that he only cared about the good of the people in administering them: if a man acted violently and another man`s virgin slave prospered, that man had to pay five shekels of silver. The concept of law as an institution that protects the weak from the strong, as a force before which all peoples are equal, fosters respect and admiration not only for the laws but also for the legislator. Although Hammurabi conquered the cities by conquest, there is no sign of revolt or dissent during the last five years of his reign.